Available Online

  • Kärnä T. & Turunen R., A straightforward technique for analysing structural response to dynamic ice action. OMAE'90. Proc. 9th Int. Conf Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. pp. 135-142.
  • Kärnä T., A procedure for dynamic soil-structure-ice interaction. Proc. 2nd Int. Offshore and Polar Eng. Conf., (ISOPE´92). San Francisco, June 14-19. 1992.
  • Kärnä T., Nyman, T., Vuorio J and Järvinen E., Results from indentation tests in sea ice. Proc. 12 th Int. Conf. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE´93). Glasgow, 1993.
  • Kärnä T., Finite ice failure depth in penetration of a vertical indentor into an ice edge. Annals of Glaciology, 19 (1994), pp. 114-120.
  • Kärnä, T. Mitigation of steady-state vibrations induced by ice. Proc. 4th Int. Offshore and Polar Eng. Conf. (ISOPE´94). Osaka, April 10.15, 1994.
  • Kamesaki, K., Yamauchi, Y and Kärnä, T. Ice force as a function of structural compliance. Proc. 13th IAHR Ice Symposium. Beijing, 1996. Vol. I, pp. 395-402.
  • Kärnä, T. Tuulen aiheuttamien värähtelyjen hallinta (Contolling techniques for wind-induced vibrations. Rakennustekniikka (The Finnish Civil Engineering & Construction journal) 5(2001). pp. 20-23 (in Finnish).
  • Kärnä, T., Kamesaki, K. & Tsukuda, H., A numerical model for dynamic ice-structure interaction. Computers and Structures 72(1999) 645-658.
  • Kärnä, T. (2001). Simplified modelling of ice-induced vibrations of offshore structures. Proc. 16th International Symposium on Okhotsk Sea & Sea Ice. 4-8 February 2001, Mombetsu, Japan. pp. 114-122.
  • Kärnä, T & Jochmann, P. 2003. Field observations on ice failure modes. Proc. 17th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions (POAC’03). Trondheim, Norway, June 16-19, Vol 2, pp. 839-848.
  • Kärnä, T. and Nykänen, E. 2004. An approach for ridge load determination in probabilistic design. Proc. 17th International Symposium on Ice. Int. Ass. Hydr. Eng. Res. St.Petersburg, Vol. 2, pp. 42-50.
  • Kärnä, T. and Kolari, K. 2004. on offshore wind turbines. Proc. 3rd European conference on Structural Mitigation of dynamic ice action Control, 3ECSS. 13-15 July 2004. Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.
  • Kärnä, T. and Qu, Y. (2005). Analysis of the size effect in ice crushing - Edition 1. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Internal Report RTE-IR-6/2005. Version 2.0, 167 p.
  • Kärnä, T., Qu. Y., Yue, Q.J., Bi, X.J. and Kühnlein W. (2006). A spectral model for forces due to ice crushing. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (Accepted).
  • Kärnä, T., Qu, Y. and Yue, Q.J. (2006). An equivalent lateral force for continuous crushing. Proc. 25th Int. Conf on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic. Eng. June 4-9, Hamburg, Germany (Accepted).
  • Kärnä, T., Qu, Y. and Yue, Q.J. (2006). An extreme value analysis of local pressures. Proc. International Conference and Exhibition on Performance of Ships and Structures in Ice. ICETECH-06. July 16-19. Banff. Alberta, Canada (Accepted).
  • Kärnä, T., Qu, Y. and Yue, Q.J. (2006). Baltic model of global ice forces on vertical structures. Proc. 18th International Symposium on Ice. Int. Ass. Hydr. Eng. Res. Sapporo, Japan, 28-31 Aug. 2006. (Accepted).
  • Kärnä, T., Qu, Y. and Yue, Q.J. (2006). Extended Baltic model of global ice forces. Proc.18th International Symposium on Ice. Int. Ass. Hydr. Eng. Res. Sapporo, Japan, 28-31 Aug. 2006. (Accepted).